Specifications[ edit ] The Oslofjord Tunnel is a 7,meter 23, ft long subsea single speed kvalsund which constitutes part of European frøya møte single E and is hence part of the Trans-European road network.
The tunnel traverses below Drøbaksundet of the Oslofjord, reaching a maximum depth of meters ft below mean sea level.
The tunnel has three lanes, with one used as a climbing lane in the uphill direction to overcome the seven percent gradient. It has a speed limit of 70 kilometers per hour 43 mphwhich is enforced by traffic enforcement cameras. These can be sealed off from the main tunnel and can each provide pressurized space for thirty to fifty people while a fire single speed kvalsund being fought.
To handle this a pump system is installed capable of draining 4, litres imp gal; 1, US gal per minute. The section from Bjørnstad in Røyken to Vassum was built at the same time as the tunnel and is referred to as the Oslofjord Link Norwegian: Oslofjordforbindelsen. The crossing primarily serves as a quicker link connecting Buskerud to Follo and Østfold. Alternative crossing single speed kvalsund driving north via Oslo or south via the Moss—Horten Ferry. As part of a national road, its operation and maintenance is financed by the national government.
They have subcontracted the operations of their administration and the toll plaza to Vegfinans. Payment is automated through Autopass. The average annual peak was reached at 7, inbefore falling to 6, in Planning of the ferry service commenced in and its first ferry, Leif 1, serve the crossing until It was then replaced with Drøbaksund, which was itself replaced with the larger Drøbaksund II in From it was supplemented with Hurumferja, hence the service having two ferries.
Road planning single speed kvalsund in the following decade reorganized so that most planning fell within the jurisdiction of a single county.
As a crossing of the Oslofjord invariable would have to cross a county border, plans fell outside the natural planning framework. Initiated by Hurum Municipality, it was also partially owned by larger companies in the municipality. The cost of the project was steep, the Håøya bridges alone estimated at million Norwegian krone NOK. The plans were rejected by the road administration because of the steep cost and low traffic single speed kvalsund, while others criticized the environmental impact it would create on Håøya and at the towns of Svelvik and Drøbak.
The choice of a subsea tunnel alternative would allow for major costs savings, easily shaving away half the cost. Another contributing factor was the Oslo Airport location controversywhich proposed various locations for a new airport. A fixed crossing would be allow for a fixed service from Vestfold and Buskerud if an airport was located in Hobøl or Åsand it would allow for a fixed service from Follo and Østfold if the airport was located in Hurum.
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Also the construction of a new plant at Tofte Cellulosefabrikk was expected to give a large rise in lumber transport to the region and could contribute to cross-fjord traffic. First a road single damer holmestrand from the E18 at Jessvoll near Drammen through Røyken and then under the fjord before terminating at an intersection with the E6.
The second phase would see the construction of a road from the tunnel through Hurum to Verketin a new subsea tunnel under the Drammensfjord near Svelvik and then drammen single a tunnel to Sandewhere it would intersect with the E Cost estimates for the auxiliary road system was estimated at between NOK and million, depending on the amount of reused road and the standard chosen.
It was proposed consisting of the Drøbak Bridge, a three-pylon cable-stayed bridge with main spans of and meters 1, and 1, ftrespectively, with the central pylon single speed kvalsund on Askholmen. On Håøya the route would largely run through a 2-kilometer 1. Across Vestfjorden the road would cross on another three-pylon cable-stayed bridge with main spans of and meters 1, and 1, ftwith the central pylon placed on Stedgrunnen. The decision included a four-lane motorway-crossing of the Oslofjord.
The Public Roads Administration published six alternatives for a crossing, including four bridge alternatives, a conventional tunnel and an immersed tube. Planning halted in after the airport construction decision was shelved. Without the airport traffic, the profitability in the project fell through and the Public Roads Administration called to instead prioritize other investments.
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However, Minister of Single speed kvalsund and Communications Kjell Opseth was a staunch supporter of the Oslofjord Link, in single speed kvalsund as a compensation for the loss of the airport after it in was decided to be built at Gardermoen.
The former stated that a bridge would result in trucks consuming only karlsøy single menn as much fuel on the segment, while the latter was also enacted by the prospect of the bridge becoming a tourist attraction. A full-scale construction was debated, with two tubes and a new highway all the way to Lier. The tunnel was estimated to cost NOK 1.
Opseth's also announced that he favored a motorway alternative with twin tubes and four lanes. The tolls were financed through private debt accumulated by Bompengeselskapet Oslofjordtunnelen, owned jointly by Akershus County Municipality and Buskerud County Municipality and established in late To cut costs further, plans to build northwards and westwards from Hurum were placed on hold.
Thus the new auxiliary road network was limited to The toll portion of the investments were set at NOK million.
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The ministry stated that they would if necessary pass state zoning laws to avoid such disruptions. The ministry also decided that the road would be designated National Road 23 and be treated as a trunk route.
The tunnel was expected to see a quintupling of the traffic compared to the ferry service. Construction commenced on 14 April However, in January the tunnelers met a wall of sediments. Although projected, it turned out to be more than 10 meters 33 ft thick, instead of the expected 5 meters 16 ftdelaying the project with six weeks. The segment was overcome by injecting concrete to create a shell before removing the masses.
The former stated single speed kvalsund the installation would be required in relation to national regulations, while the latter stated that the fire chief lacked technical qualifications to assess fire protection in tunnels.
The installation would cost between NOK 3 and 10 million. The ferry service was at the same time terminated.
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This caused the pumps to malfunction and it took a week to drain the tunnel for 3, cubic meterscu ft of water and allow it to open. This was the first time such an event occurred in a subsea tunnel in Norway. The tunnel was closed again on 16 January after geological randaberg single damer found a section of unstable rock.
Thirty-four people were caught in the smoke-engulfed tunnel, of which twelve were sent to hospital. The cause of the incident was an escalated fire in the engine.
Single Damer Kvalsund
The tunnel was thus closed for all traffic. This resulted in a doubling in the number of issued speeding tickets, with 1, tickets issued in the first month. The remainder was used for interest and to operate the toll plaza, which cost NOK 14 million in The agency stated that advanced tolls on a new tube would allow for a lower total toll collection, as interest payments would be lowered.
In addition the tolls would stimulate for less traffic through the tunnel, which the agency wanted to reduce until a second tube opens.
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Should the second tube not single speed kvalsund built, the tolls will be used for other projects in the area. The red line shows the second, proposed tube and carriageway. The Public Roads Administration announced on 10 January that they intended to build a second tube for the tunnel along with a second carriageway on the section of National Road 23 from the tunnel to the Vassum Interchange on E6 in Frogn.
The investment was proposed financed through an extension of the toll collection for an additional single speed kvalsund to fifteen years. This will allow each of the tubes to act as an emergency exit for the other.
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The second tube will have to closely follow the route of the current tunnel, thus eliminating the possibility of a less steep gradient. The Public Roads Administration regards the section through sediments at Hurum as the most challenging part and is considering altering the tunnels positions, both horizontally and vertically, through this part. This involves rebuilding the roundabout at Måsa to an interchange, construction of a parallel tube for the 1,meter 5, ft Frogn Tunnel, a parallel bridge for the meter ft Bråtan Bridge and a reconstruction of Vassum Tunnel, which acts as a gradient between a single- and twin-tubed tunnel.
The one involves the original crossing via Håøya, estimated to cost NOK 7 billion. The latter bridge allows for a railway to be carried as well.
Finalizing a proposal in time for completion by is regarded by the authorities as crucial, as by that time European Union regulations will be enforced, requiring the tunnel, because its location on a Trans-European Network, to have two tubes or a parallel evacuation tunnel.
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Alternatively, a new bridge could be built further south to replace the Moss—Horten Ferry. The latter would see the Oslofjord Tunnel remain open, and could or could not result in a second tube being built.
The ministry has stated that planning of a bridge would not be completed before